What Is A Polar Covalent Bond?

Chemistry is replete with topics that are tricky and hard to understand at the first go. Chemical bonding is one such topic that students find a bit hard to make sense of as the concept of electron clouds in atoms interacting with one other and sharing or transferring electrons is difficult to understand. There are primarily to different kinds of bonding – ionic and covalent and the polar covalent bond. Read on to learn as to what a polar covalent bond along with some examples.

What is a polar covalent bond?

Simply put, a polar covalent bond is formed when atoms (or their electron clouds to be more specific) interact with one another and electrons are shared between them in the process. While in an ionic bond, the electrons get transferred, here a sharing of electrons takes place and this happens in electron pairs. When a single pair is shared, the resultant bond is called the single covalent bond, when two pairs are shared; the resultant bond is called a double bond and so on. There are again two distinct types of the covalent bond – polar and non-polar. The polar covalent bond is typically formed as a result of unequal sharing of electrons between the participating atoms.

polar covalent bond

Learning such an important concept is no longer possible with classrooms alone today as the student ratio is very disproportionate and students seldom get individual attention. An online chemistry tutor is thus the best hope for a student to understand this tricky concept and learn all the requisite details about it well. Keep reading to learn about some examples of a polar covalent bond.

Some popular examples to understand the polar covalent bond

The compound called Hydrogen Fluoride is an easy example to understand this intriguing concept. Most students require help in this area and are often flummoxed when it comes to understanding this type of bond and seek chemistry homework help from online platforms to get the detailed explanation and step by step explanation of how the bond is formed between Hydrogen and Fluorine.

Structure of Hydrogen Atom: Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table and has an atomic number 1. Thus, the number of electrons in its valence electron shell (outer shell) is one.


Structure of Fluorine Atom: Fluorine is the ninth element in the periodic table and has an atomic number 9 and has seven electrons in its outermost shell.


Thus, hydrogen requires one electron for stability while fluorine requires also requires one electron for stability (To complete its octet) and these two elements share an electron to form a polar covalent bond. Since polar covalent bonds are all about unequal sharing, Fluorine pulls the electron towards its octet resulting in a partial negative charge while hydrogen has a partial positive charge.

Most of the organic compounds form polar covalent bonds and thus understanding this concept completely is of utmost importance in organic chemistry. This is perhaps why most assignments are allocated in this area at school and students seek chemistry assignment help online to score better and understand the concepts involved clearly.

Overview Of The Laws Of Thermodynamics

Study of motion or in other words Dynamics is investigating why things move and what is the behavior behind that. The prefix thermo indicates heat, so thermodynamics is the investigation of what urges warmth to move in the way that it does.

Laws of Thermodynamics let us know about the flow of heat. The laws of thermodynamics are somewhat odd however very important when it comes to physics homework help. They are four of them. Let us check out them individually.

Zeroth Law

It states that “If system A is at thermal equilibrium with system B, and B is at thermal equilibrium with system C, then A is at thermal equilibrium with C.” This dives more into logic than physics. In other words, if A & B have the same temperature, and B and C have the same temperature, then A and C have the same temperature as well.

157686-81519-Zeroth-law-thermodynamicsThis explains it that heat transfer taking place from a hot object to a cold object when placed together, until they reach a state of equilibrium. Get yourself an online physics tutor to help you out with the subject.

First Law Of Thermodynamics 

Consider a secluded framework where energy and heat neither leave nor enter the framework. Such a framework is doing no work, yet we take up with it a certain amount of internal energy, U, which is identified with the kinetic energy of the atoms in the framework, and in this manner to the framework’s temperature. This internal energy is referred similar to potential energy due to the property of a framework that is doing no work, however can possibly do work.

The first law lets us know that the potential energy of a framework builds if warmth is added to the framework or if work is done on the framework and reduces if the framework emits warm or does work. We can express this law as a mathematical statement where U connotes internal energy, Q implies heat, and W means work. First Law Of Thermodynamics The First Law is simply one more method for expressing the law of conservation of energy. Both work and heat are types of energy forms, so any warmth or work that goes into or out of a framework must influence the potential energy of that framework.

Second Law Of Thermodynamics 

The second law is most well known for its entropy and formulation. The word entropy was instituted in the nineteenth century as a specialized term for discussing issue.

Pouring a tablespoon of salt and after that a tablespoon of pepper into a jug. At to start with, there will be two different stacks: salt as well as pepper. When you shake up the blend, the grains of salt and pepper will combine. No measure of shaking will then help you isolate the blend of grains again into two separate varieties. The two different salt and pepper constitute a more organized framework than the blend of the two.

Second Law Of Thermodynamics Next, assume you drop the container on the floor. The glass will break resulting in grains of salt and pepper dispersing all over the floor. You can hold up persistently, however you’ll see that, while the glass could smash and the grains could scramble, no activity as basic as dropping a container will recover the glass to intervene again or the salt and pepper to accumulate themselves up. Your arrangement of salt and pepper in the container is more organized than the arrangement of smashed glass and dispersed condiments.

Third Law Of Thermodynamics 

The third law of thermodynamics expresses that “the entropy of a framework at absolute zero is a well defined constant.” This is on account of a framework at zero temperature with an existence in ground state, so that its entropy is resolved just by the decline of the ground state. It is difficult to cool a substance to absolute zero.

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Understanding The Alkene Hydrohalogenation Mechanism Taking Place In Organic Chemistry Reactions

Alkenes hydrohalogenation involves forming a carbon double bond by breaking a single bond, which is again followed by halogen having hydrogen added through an electrophilic addition. Then the substituted carbon will have a halide added with the help of Markovnikov’s rule. The result obtained is a haloalkane product known as alkyl halide.

Alkene Hydrohalogenation Mechanism Taking Place

Brief summary of Hydrohalogenation Mechanism

Nucleophilic pi bond targets for the electrophilic H bond in the H-X reaction, which results in breaking of the pi bond. Through Markovnikov’s rule, H adds up to the less substituted atom of carbon. This causes a deficit of +1 charge in the more substituted atom of carbon. This provides room for negative halide to form a bond by attacking carbcocation. Finally, what is left is a haloalkane called alkyl halide. Keep in mind that an inert solvent is a must to carry out the entire reaction.

Electrophilic Addition

Detailed explanation of Hydrohalogenation Mechanism


MECHANISM FOR REACTION OF ALKENES WITH HBrThe H-X molecules observed around such as H-Cl, H-Br, and H-I are absolutely high polar. This means that you can expect the electrons between hydrogen and halogen getting hogged because of the tendency of halogen that is highly electronegative. Hence, halogen becomes partially negative, making hydrogen partially positive. Because the pi bond is present at extreme ends of carbon skeleton, they are conveniently distracted by other neighboring molecules. And since, electrons get attracted towards the positive charge, they will possibly look out and reach the electrophile passing by that is positive or even partially positive.

Markovnikov's rule

As soon as an H-X bond passes by alkene, pi bonds get attracted towards hydrogen atom that is partially positive. To trade for the hydrogen atom, out of two any pi electron has to let go off the carbon atom already present in the bond. Now by applying Markovnikov’s rule, carbocation takes place with the more substituted carbon atom. Now since the less substituted carbon atoms haven’t released the electrons, they are singly bound to hydrogen. However, hydrogen can form only a single carbon bond. Hence, halogen acquires the electrons from less substituted carbon atom, and gets floated away in a solution full of negative charge as well as complete octet.


Remember, negative halogens are known as nucleophiles and they get attracted towards electrophiles that are positive. Hence the alone halogen loses electron pairs to attract carbocation forming a sigma bond. Because carbocation took place with more substituted carbon, halogen winds itself with that carbon atom.

alkyl bromide

Solvents play a big role in dissolving reagents as well as reactants without actually hindering the actual process. For this particular reaction we use non polar protic inert solvents such as CCl4, CHCl2, and more. When halide breaks away from hydrogen, the role of halide comes into play. A cage like thing is formed all over negative halogen when the solvent makes use of its partially positively charged hydrogen atoms. Hence, carbocation is prevented by letting off halogen. In fact, what happens is a one of the solvent molecules uses electrons in order to confront carbocation.

Reaction of Alkenes with HBr (radical)


Still have a lot of doubts on how the whole process is taking place? Well, you can surely consult your online chemistry tutoring firm, or an independent online chemistry tutor to help you out in clearing all doubts related to chemistry homework help.


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